Pathology:  Non-union fractures present a problem for the patient and surgeon. With most repair mechanisms in the body a fracture of a long or cranial Continue Reading

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Pathology:  Facial structure undergoes the ageing process like all tissues. The structure is composed of bone and soft tissue which accordingly in respect of the Continue Reading

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Pathology: There are 2 distinct sub-types associated with dry eyes or what medically is called kerato-conjunctivitis sicca.The first one may be described as age related producing Continue Reading

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Pathology:  A headache is any pain in the head, behind the eyes and above the ears. It may be described as throbbing, constant, sharp or dull.Migraines Continue Reading

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Pathology: Shingles (coxsackie virus) is a common painful disease affecting both men and women mainly in the 50-70 year age bracket. It is normally associated with Continue Reading

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Pathology: An increased risk of heart inflammation (myocarditis, pericarditis, pneumonitis) has been observed in people who have received COVID 19 vaccines, particularly in males under 30 Continue Reading

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Pathology:  The nature of hair loss is essentially genetically determined although there may be associated hormonal or medical conditions that can exacerbate the problem. Anyone Continue Reading

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Pathology: Dementia is a condition characterised by progressive or persistent loss of intellectual functioning, especially with impairment of memory and abstract thinking, often with a personality Continue Reading

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Pathology: This is described as a rare, late complication of nasal turbinate resection surgery. The commonest clinical symptoms include paradoxical nasal obstruction, nasal dryness and crusting Continue Reading

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Pathology: A disease of unknown origin, possibly related to a virus, affecting the 7th cranial nerve and resulting in unilateral facial muscle weakness. From a layman’s Continue Reading

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Pathology: There are 2 distinct sub-types associated with a dry mouth. The first one may be described as age related producing generalised atrophy of the minor and Continue Reading

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The diverse range of autoimmune conditions amenable to stem cell treatments vary from rheumatoid arthritis, polymyalgia rheumatica to sarcoidosis and multiple sclerosis. Within the autoimmune Continue Reading

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From an anatomical perspective pain is a complex reaction that manifests itself in the hosts body from a variety of noxious stimuli.The syndrome or complex Continue Reading

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Pathology: Trigeminal Neuralgia is a debilitating pain affecting the distribution of one or more of the branches of the Trigeminal nerve. This nerve is a sensory Continue Reading

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Pathology: Ageing is defined as the decline and deterioration of functional properties at the cellular, tissue and organ level. The loss of functional properties yields a Continue Reading

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Pathology: Covid 19 is an acronym which stands for coronavirus disease 2019 and is caused by the novel coronavirus SARS—CoV2. The outstanding characteristic of this disease Continue Reading

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Pathology: The temporo-mandibular joint (TMJ) is the hinge mechanism of the lower jaw. As such it is crucial for the lower jaw or mandible to function Continue Reading

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